Camulos/*Kamulaz

Meaning of name: Olmsted gives “of Conflicts” and/or “the Warrior” [1], while Delamarre gives “Champion or Servant” [2]. Olmsted is unsure about the etymology, where Delamarre is mostly convinced that the theonym is linked to a rare Old Irish word ‘Cumall’ (‘Champion’). The portion of where ‘servant’ enters in comes from the feminine ‘Cumal’ (slave woman, servant) from the root kema- ‘to tire, to give pain’. ‘Cumall’, being the masculine form, would link servant and champion due to the idea of champions being servants to their rulers. The name ‘Camulorix’ would imply this as correct if it’s meaning is as Olmstead’s guesses prove true, ‘King of Warriors’ or ‘Ruler of Conflict’ [3]. Miranda Aldhouse-Green in a previous work suggests it to mean ‘Powerful’ [4], but provides no etymological work for the conclusion.

Pronunciation: Gaulish – Kam-UL-os, Proto-Germanic – KAM-ul-az (With ‘K’ having an exasperation, sounding like an ‘h’ at the beginning, and the liquid z being pronounced approximately close to the ‘j’ in French ‘bonjour’).

Note: The reason for a constructed Proto-Germanic form is to further bridge the gap between the Celtic and Germanic. Even though Camulos was never Germanisized, it’s not unthinkable that soliders of Germanic origin in Roman Auxiliaries may have participated in His cult, given the inscriptions in Germania Inferior and Superior (An example being the Mars-Camulus Stein found in Cugerni lands) [5].

For the *Bolgoi/*Belgoi who lean more to the Germanic language spectrum, we offer this version of His theonym for liturgical purposes, should they wish to participate in his contemporary cultus. A special thank you to Erik Ingruoda of Thia Frankisk Aldsido for his help/work on this construction.

Function: Via his interpretatio to the Roman theonym ‘Mars’, it’s mostly assumed that He is a god of warrior capacity. Segomâros Widugeni agrees with Kondratiev, and lists him as a “god who sets the boundaries of the civilized world and protects them by force of arms’. He further associates Him with the other functions of Mars, such as his links to fields and agriculture [6], supported by Kondratiev [7]. The agricultural aspect of Mars is confirmed by classicist Mary Beard in her work, ‘Religions of Rome: Volume 1, A History [8]. Mary Edith Wightman suggests that He was the chief god of the Remi, counter to the example of Lenus being the chief god of the Treveri [9].

Iconography: Severed heads, ram horns via one possible depiction, military personnel such as cavalrymen and/or infantrymen, shields [10]. Possibly the Bay tree (Laurus nobilis), if we take the Mars Camulos Stein [11] as an indicator of the Bay being sacred to Camulos (or of gods in general), otherwise it may have just been general symbol of protection from maleficent forces, added regularly to dedicated altars. Given that Camulos is alleged as a protector god besides being one of martial capacity, it would hardly be surprising if this was a sacred item to Him.

Attested Sources: From Olmsted in Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans;

There are various inscriptions from Belgica (DAG: ‘211, ‘213), Germania Superior (DAG: ‘236), and the Agri Decumates (DAG: ‘243), as well as Great Britain (RIB: 2166, Bar Hill, Dunbarton) to the DEO MARTI CAMVLO, MARTI CAMVLO, or CAMVLO (CIL XIII: 3980, Arlon; 8701, Rindern [12].

Interpretatio Romana: Classically, Mars.

Senobessus Bolgon interpretation: Camulos/*Kamulaz is a martial god with both offensive and defensive characteristics. Not only is He the protector and champion of the people, He also protects the borders of civilization from outside evil. He would be petitioned to for agricultural protection and growth as well. Like Lenus, He would be petitioned to fight off illness and injury, or harmful esoteric inflictions (read; curses or magic). Camulos/*Kamulaz is the lord of all martial arts, and would be both a patron to wikocerdatîs/galacerdatîs (Martial Artists), soliders and/or warriors, as well as those who participate in athletic cultus (sans Martial leanings or included).

Those who wish for a more Remi based praxis would be advised to look to Camulos/*Kamulaz.

What follows is gnosis, both personal and shared

Personal: He is the lord and warden of the Nemeton Cingeton/Nemeton Galation, a grove or sacred space for wikocerdatîs/galacerdatîs, cingetes, or even cawaroi.

Shared: He appears wearing a ram horned helment. My gnosis specifically was a ram-skulled helmet, where as Segomâros says ram horned helmet [13]. Either way, ram horns are involved in His official contemporary iconography.

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Resources

1. Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans, p. 334-335 by Garett Olmsted

2. Dictionnaire de la langue Gauloise (2nd ed.) by Xavier Delamarre (2003) Paris: Editions Errance p. 101

3. Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans, p. 335 by Garett Olmsted

4. The Gods of the Celts by Mirana Aldhouse-Green (previously Miranda Green), Kindle edition

5.The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture By Harriet I. Flower, p. 221-222

6. Ancient Fire by Segomâros Widugeni p. 51-52

7. Basic Celtic Deity Types, Alexei Kondratiev, http://www.imbas.org/articles/basic_celtic_deity_types.html (Celtic Mars section)

8. Religions of Rome: Volume 1, A History By Mary Beard, p. 15-16

9. Gallia Belgica by Edith Mary Wightman, p. 180

10. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology by James MacKillop

11. The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture By Harriet I. Flower, p. 221-222

12. Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans, p. 334 by Garett Olmsted

13. Ancient Fire by Segomâros Widugeni p. 51-52